Get e-book Outbreak Episode 1: Ground Zero

Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download and read online Outbreak Episode 1: Ground Zero file PDF Book only if you are registered here. And also you can download or read online all Book PDF file that related with Outbreak Episode 1: Ground Zero book. Happy reading Outbreak Episode 1: Ground Zero Bookeveryone. Download file Free Book PDF Outbreak Episode 1: Ground Zero at Complete PDF Library. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. Here is The CompletePDF Book Library. It's free to register here to get Book file PDF Outbreak Episode 1: Ground Zero Pocket Guide.
Find helpful customer reviews and review ratings for Outbreak Episode 1: Ground Zero at Read honest and unbiased product reviews from our.
Table of contents

Hursh himself in the Fixed Temperature Laboratory.

Solve The Outbreak - 508 Accessible Version

The scenario ends with players fleeing into the sewers and facing off against the Giant Leech. Upon inspecting the boiler room area below the hotel, there is a massive explosion that sets the entire Apple Inn ablaze. The players are trapped inside and must fight zombies, lickers, and more as they try to escape. After finishing off the Suspen-dead, they are rescued by a firefighter who breaks down the front door. Decisions, Decisions - After George receives a note from his friend Peter requesting assistance, he leads the group of survivors to the university where he is located.

Upon arrival, Peter is dead due to a gunshot wound to his back. The group splits up to locate the components required to recreate the Daylight vaccine. The first piece must be obtained from Thanatos, an experimental Tyrant created by an Umbrella scientist. The group temporarily stuns him, and are able to retrieve the T-blood sample. They also retrieve a sample of V-poison, the second required component, from the emission tower. The third and final piece needed is the P-base, a sample of the Progenitor virus that was derived from the original t-Virus.

After they recreate the Daylight vaccine, they attempt to flee by helicopter, but are met once again by Thanatos, who has mutated into a Super Tyrant. Working together, they successfully take down the mutant and escape with the newly synthesized vaccine in-hand. Resident Evil Outbreak was followed up a year later by Resident Evil Outbreak: File 2, an expansion to the original game that added five more scenarios.

Again, these scenarios can be played in any order, but directly follow the events from the first game. The gameplay and graphics were generally the same, although the ability to strafe and shoot were added, as well as reduced load times. In November , the U. This resulted in the building of new ETCs, an increase in laboratory capacity, air transport of supplies, and enhanced awareness programmes. However, Ebola virus transmission decreased significantly before many of the ETCs had become operational, with some ETCs treating no patients [ 59 ].

Mistrust between communities and authorities was a common theme in all countries affected by the West African outbreak. This was epitomized by protests in Liberia in mid-August Residents of the West Point District tried to dismantle an Ebola screening unit which they viewed as a risk to their safety. This lead to violent clashes between soldiers and protesters and the eventual quarantining of the whole West Point District [ 60 ].

Mistrust of the government, as well as fear of stigmatization, led some to avoid seeking medical help for suspected EVD and reluctance to engage in surveillance and contact tracing [ 56 ]. In a heavy-handed response, the Liberian Government made it illegal to conceal an Ebola-infected patient, punishable by a prison sentence of 2 years [ 61 ]. The peak in reported cases occurred in September , but by late transmission had begun to decrease. By early January , nine months after the first reported cases in Liberia, approximately new cases were being reported per week, with transmission limited to two counties: Montserrado and Grand Cape Mount [ 47 ].

One additional case was confirmed in Monrovia later in March but led to no additional subsequent infections. Forty-two days later, on 9 May , Liberia was declared Ebola-free [ 5 ].

Never Played Resident Evil Outbreak? Here's What You Need to Know

Liberia was declared Ebola-free three more times, after small clusters of infection in June , November and April The first of these clusters was of six confirmed cases near Monrovia. Genomic sequencing suggested re-emergence from an EVD survivor in Liberia rather than cross-border spread [ 5 ]. The second cluster occurred in Monrovia among three members of the same family.

This was also attributed to long-term viral carriage in a survivor. The final cluster occurred in April and was thought to have been imported from Guinea when a woman travelled to Monrovia from Macenta, Guinea, to visit relatives after the death of her husband from EVD. The virus spread to her two sons, but with rapid diagnosis, contact tracing, early treatment and isolation in an ETC, the virus did not spread further [ 62 ]. Liberia was again declared Ebola-free on 9 June The total number of confirmed, probable, and suspected cases in Liberia was 10 laboratory-confirmed , with deaths [ 47 ].

The first case was a young woman in Kenema, Sierra Leone's third largest city, 50 km from the Liberian border and km from the border with Guinea. Given the situation in neighbouring countries, Sierra Leone had already begun an enhanced surveillance programme based in the Lassa fever isolation ward in Kenema General Hospital [ 64 ]. Within a month of the outbreak being confirmed in Sierra Leone, over people were reported infected [ 47 ] and case numbers appeared to be increasing rapidly. Within six months of the first reported case, the outbreak in Sierra Leone peaked November with up to people a week being infected [ 47 ].

Retrospective analyses suggest that the Ebola virus was introduced to Sierra Leone from Guinea more than five months before the first officially reported case. Further genomic analysis suggests two distinct linages of Ebola virus were introduced into Sierra Leone from Guinea in early [ 64 ]. Like many ETCs at this stage of the outbreak, this facility was rapidly overwhelmed.

Further beds were provided in the Lassa fever isolation ward at Kenema District Hospital, which was uniquely placed to deal with the emerging threat of EBV. However, this too was overwhelmed by the sheer number of cases and it was forced to move patients into general medical wards where isolation and infection control were inadequate. More than 40 HCWs from this hospital were infected in [ 67 ], with many of them dying, including Sierra Leone's only national expert on haemorrhagic fevers [ 68 ].

Once the virus was established within Sierra Leone, molecular epidemiological evidence suggests that sustained human-to-human transmission occurred within the country, rather than through repeated cross-border reinfections or recurrent zoonotic events [ 70 ]. Ebola virus appears to have spread long distances following major roads networks, whereas many smaller chains of transmission went unnoted and uncontrolled in remote, isolated villages [ 71 ].

Just as the outbreak in one area was thought to be coming under control, these undetected links surfaced in new geographical areas, causing wave-like spread across the country from east to west. By September , sustained transmission was reported in the densely populated capital, Freetown [ 72 ].

The spread from the eastern hub to Freetown, which resulted in intense transmission, marked a serious escalation in the outbreak [ 73 ]. A state of emergency was declared and a 3 day national lockdown was imposed in September The lockdown was designed not only to decrease the movement of people, but also to give HCWs time to identify new cases and increase awareness of EVD through door-to-door campaigns [ 75 ]. Subsequently, quarantine restrictions were put in place in high-risk areas; curfews were imposed, including in Freetown, lasting anywhere from 21 days to several months, with restriction of movements between Mass quarantine proved controversial—at one point one third of the population of Sierra Leone was under quarantine [ 77 ].

Aside from the ethical concerns, many felt that mass quarantine measures were ineffective for Ebola as patients are not infectious until they become symptomatic [ 80 ], and they may have been counterproductive by preventing the free movement of necessary medical supplies and personnel [ 81 ]. By October , transmission had spread to the northern district of Koinadugu, the last remaining Ebola-free district of Sierra Leone [ 82 ]. However, by November , the outbreak in the eastern hub had begun to see reduced transmission [ 73 ].

More HCWs were infected and died in Sierra Leone than in any other country, both in absolute numbers and relative proportion of cases terms [ 67 ]. Sierra Leone was the only country in which there were strikes by frontline workers because of working conditions and pay. In late , burial workers went on strike over unsafe working conditions and a lack of hazard pay [ 83 ], in contrast to the relatively generous compensation paid to HCWs and their families in Guinea [ 40 ].

In addition, doctors and nurses withdrew their labour [ 66 ] seeking assurance that a new UK-built treatment centre for HCWs would accept local, as well as international, staff if they became infected [ 84 ].

Despite an apparently well-functioning contact tracing system [ 85 ], cases continued in the north of the country across the first half of , in part fuelled by secret and unsafe burials [ 86 ]. This included the imposition of curfews in both districts 12 June , enhanced surveillance, active contact tracing, intense community engagement and mass quarantine.

With these intense response strategies, the outbreak in Sierra Leone appeared to be coming under control, but despite the strictness of Operation Northern Push [ 88 ] new chains of transmission proved stubbornly resistant to detection. News of a case in Kambia in September —three weeks after the last reported case and with no link to any known chain of transmission—led to a flurry of activity, including the first trial of ring vaccination in Sierra Leone for Ebola virus [ 89 ].

This was in addition to vaccine trials for frontline workers undertaken in Sierra Leone [ 90 ]. After this concerted effort, in November , one year on from the epidemic peak, Sierra Leone was declared free of Ebola virus [ 91 ].

Years of Ebola Virus Disease Outbreaks

However, two months later in January , a year old woman died of EVD and her carer was subsequently found to be infected. Applying many of the lessons from the previous 18 months, the public health system responded rapidly and effectively, quickly containing the flare-up and preventing spread. Four months later, and almost 2 years after the first confirmed infection, Sierra Leone was again declared Ebola-free on 17 March [ 92 ]. The outbreak in Sierra Leone claimed the lives of persons and is believed to have infected 14 laboratory-confirmed cases [ 47 ].

Sierra Leone is now the country with the largest number of Ebola cases in history. Several other neighbouring countries had confirmed Ebola infections during this period, all with epidemiological and genetically proven links to the outbreaks in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone. However, only Nigeria and Mali had foci of local transmission. In addition, other countries also accepted evacuated cases from West Africa for hospitalization including Germany, France, Switzerland, The Netherlands and Norway.

There was also the coincidental, but unrelated, outbreak in DRC which occurred at the same time. October 2-year old girl from Guinea whose father was a Red Cross worker who died—no local transmission. November Iman from Guinea, thought to have partaken in traditional burial ritual ceremonies across the border in Sierra Leone.

Local transmission occurred and six others infected. Liberian national visiting family in Dallas—local transmission to two HCWs. Social, biological and structural drivers of transmission combined during the outbreak to allow a perfect storm with unprecedented and devastating consequences [ ].

This was exacerbated by a failure in the response at both national and international levels. This section discusses these factors in more detail, with specific focus on the role of interventions on limiting outbreak size. Emerging diseases such as Ebola often arise from close animal contact at the zoonotic interface. Therefore, it is common for outbreaks to occur in isolated rural areas, and most previous Ebola outbreaks have remained contained in these settings.

In the initial phases of this outbreak, disease transmission went undetected and likely led to chains of transmission within the Kissi tribal area that spans the borders of Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone figure 4. The local population is mobile across these three countries, the borders of which are porous, and as a result it accounted for the vast majority of early cases in this outbreak.