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Sonata De Invierno Group

She is an enterprising woman who has an independent business. She makes woven items with wool and thread. She makes hats, ponchos, and outfits for babies and children. Her work is exported to foreign countries by a business that contracts her services. She has been doing this work for five years.

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Evarista started this craft because a friend recommended it and motivated her to start this small business. She also makes macrame purses, which are very well-known by people and institutions for her distinguished work. It is, he writes:. It bears emphasizing that both Gallardo and Altarriba choose to take on and appropriate the voice of an aging, silenced, or recently deceased father. In fact, Gallardo dedicated his book to his father, who died shortly after the emotion-filled event in which the author dedicated it to him.

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In an interview, Altarriba explains why he, like Gallardo, decided to write in the first person about his father's life:. Altarriba uses the image of flying to organize the book, not only though the gradual fall during his father's suicide each chapter represents the descent past one floor of the building , but also through flying as a symbol for his search for open spaces, for freedom.


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As will be made clear shortly, Altarriba's father's gradual fall, lasting 90 years, is also significant in terms of the coming impact, a delayed and, in a sense, liberating impact with solid ground. This work is a collection of his comic strip, Paracuellos , first written and published in two separate blocks of time between , and was later published in one definitive volume in Published in the same year the Historical Memory Act passed in Spain, this six-hundred-plus page collected volume portrays the abuses and horrors of the nationally run Social Welfare Homes of the postwar.

Perhaps not a very important part, generally speaking, but in speaking personally, for those of us who lived it and for our families, important enough to want to leave evidence of it". In all three of these memoir-hybrids, paratextual information emphasizes the desire that the publication connect a personal memory to the broader experience of the Spanish post-war. Unlike the first three works, which I have been calling graphic narratives, Los surcos is a graphic novel, a comic of historical fiction that is neither biographical nor autobiographical. However, many readers were surprised to discover this book is neither biographical nor autobiographical, perhaps because of its convincing frame story or the rigor of Roca's research.

The truth is that this book is a fictional biographical story about one character — that is, a fictional account of what plausibly could have happened to a man who really existed and fought against fascism. In it, Roca uses specific color palettes, a frame story, and visual perspectives to convey the importance of the historical events at the book's center, while also working with the complications of giving and receiving testimony.


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Los surcos del azar has brought recognition to the role that Republican Spaniards played in fighting fascism, not just during, but especially after Spain's Civil War. In addition to this powerful central story, the book also utilizes a frame structure whereby a Spanish author, named Paco like the book's author, meets, interviews and draws the story of Miguel Ruiz, an elderly Republican living in France.

Even Miguel's surrogate family in France is oblivious to his military background. As a younger man, Miguel had lived through the Spanish Civil War, expatriation, exile in antebellum France, forced labor in camps in Algeria and Tunisia, reenlistment in the anti-fascist forces this time the French , storming the beaches of Normandy, and participation in La Nueve which was the first company to liberate Paris.

Most Spaniards don't know that the first company to liberate Paris was made up primarily of their countrymen, and Paco Roca has stated in many interviews that he hopes Los surcos will help bring awareness to this fact. More broadly, he hopes his work will bring attention to the peculiar case of Spaniards who fought fascism for years yet were unable to find sanctuary at home following World War II. Having introduced each book's main ideas, and the intention of each creator to participate in a collective endeavor, the focus of this section is on specific examples of how these comics represent trauma.

Most relevant to the recuperation of memory, they incorporate collage and visual intertext, create irony through the occasional disconnect between word and image, employ colors for specific purposes, employ visual simultaneity of past and present, use panels and page layout to manipulate the impact of their stories, provide strong points of view to encourage identification with their characters, and leave to borrow the words of Scott McCloud the blood in the gutter, thus recreating, in the inherently fragmentary nature of sequential narratives, events that can only be told in fragments and images.

In what follows, specific examples of these techniques are pulled from the books I've introduced. Un largo silencio makes use of collage, incorporating copies or scans of real artifacts of memory — photographs, letters, and official documents — in its pages, along with cartoon reproductions of other photographs and pages from old newspapers. Drawing on the wordlessness of traumatic memory, the sheer physicality of these collages makes real events that seem otherwise unimaginable.

Paracuellos also uses a similar technique when it recreates the artifacts of letters , , and , among others from children in the orphanages. This type of image and the constant reference to specific dates and places remind the reader of the realness of the events represented.

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Hillary Chute notes that by "[a]ctivating the past on the page, comics materializes the physically absent. It inscribes and concretizes, through the embodied labor of drawing, 'the spatial charge of a presence,' the tactile presence of a line, the body of the medium. The desire is to make the absent appear" The inclusion of drawn realia in Paracuellos and Un largo silencio certainly fulfills this role for the stories, previously absent, of the suffering of many Republicans in the postwar. In another technique distinctive to comics, perhaps the defining definition of comics as "essentially a hybrid, polysemic art, based on the encounter between text and image," we can consider the technique of pairing text and image in these works Groensteen Mila Bongco calls the "relation between text and image [ Art Spiegelman uses the spelling co-mix, noting in an interview, "You think it is a co-mix of words and pictures" Hornblower The slogan the words of the fascists posits that the coup introduced the upward movement of the nation, while we see in the image the reality of those for whom fascism meant being stomped downward.

The author of this book also re-appropriates the imagery of the Falange to critique the party itself, for instance when the eagle of victory and imperialism becomes a nightmarish vulture. Here, the protagonist rejoices at the loss of his ability to see the atrocities around him. In the page's wordless images, we identify the ironic use of the symbol of the Falange as it plucks the man's eyes from their sockets Figure.


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  • Spanish audiences certainly recognize the visual reference to Falangist propaganda in the eagle, the ribbon behind it, and the Falangist yoke and arrows replacing the crops. Because many of the children of the postwar left in the care of welfare homes had come from the war's losing side, a major component of their care was indoctrination, seemingly through any and all means, into the ideology of the Falangist party.

    The characters in Paracuellos receive, share, fight over, and draw comics too. In response to the horror of abuse and totalitarianism, Paracuellos represents the stark contrast between the triumphant Falangist ideology, transmitted to the children through speeches and sermons, and the tragic experiences of the children themselves, and also with the normal childhood desires of those children.

    Meanwhile, the children who listen to these words are preoccupied by their basic bodily needs and unable to pay any attention to the speech. In illustrating the child's desperate facial expression as he asks to use the bathroom, the medium provides a sharp contrast between the visual message and the text of the instructor's message Fig. The layout of a page in a comic affects the impact of the story, potentially encouraging a particular reading experience.

    In Paracuellos , for instance, themes of abandonment and reconnection are highlighted, through page and panel layouts that heighten the bittersweet tone of the strip.

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    For instance, several pages end with the long-shot of a lone Hogar, made more alone by the lack of text in the panel Fig. Furthermore, the perspective of the children is strengthened because many panels represent their lower point of view Fig. As mentioned above, trauma comics allow for the visual simultaneity on the space of the same page, visible at the same time of past and present.

    Publisher Description

    These depictions of traumatic experiences are accurate in the way that "past" trauma remains present for survivors, making itself known through symptoms such as the repetition compulsion, where wounds of the past emerge as flashbacks or nightmares in the present. This repetition compels the survivor to relive an inescapable and inassimilable past. In Los surcos del azar , Roca uses specific color palettes for his frame narrative, which consists of conversations between the two main characters, to add depth to the flashback story of Miguel and his wartime experiences.

    He lost his left arm during an altercation in Madrid in Valle Inclan became well known in the literary circles of Madrid and Rome, in which cities he resided. He had held several official positions under the Spanish Republic. Valle Inclan produced poetry, plays, and novels. His symbolist verse includes Aromas de leyenda and La pipa de Kif His plays include Aguila de blason and Cara de plata , both in prose.

    Cuento de abril and La marquesa Rosalinda were in verse.

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    La cabeza del dragon was one of his most successful dramas. He achieved renown, however, as a novelist. He used himself as the model for the libertine hero of his Sonatas - This four-part series, which represents the seasons of the year and corresponding stages of man, was translated into English as The Pleasant Memoirs of the Marquis de Bradomin Flor de Santidad pictures Galician life, and Los cruzados de la causa deals with the Carlist War.

    His later novels included Divinas palabras , which evoked his Galician background; Luces de Bohemia , dealing with the life of bohemians; Tirano Banderas , set in a Latin American republic; and La corte de los milagros. Skip to content Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. Happy reading Los fantasmas del invierno Spanish Edition Bookeveryone.